Multifunctional complex, diploma project of the Master of Architecture "Horizontal skyscraper - principles of shaping"

Silver diploma of the "Architecton" 2015 competition
Silver diploma of the review competition "Golden Capital" 2016
Publication on the portal "Architecture of Russia"
St. Petersburg, Tram Park No. 3, Kotovskogo Street 2 2013-2015
Student, architect::
Aleksandr Melnichenko

Vladimir Kuzmich Linov

Diploma project of the Master of Architecture
St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering

St. Petersburg, Tram Park No. 3, Kotovskogo Street 2

The concept of the project is to formulate the principle of development of depressed industrial areas of St. Petersburg.
This project represents an image of the interaction of old and new, an image of a respectful attitude to history and an innovative approach based on the creative principles of the architects of the Russian avant-garde of the 20th century.
The use of long-span structures when creating a multifunctional complex on the territory of tram park No. 3 in St. Petersburg allows, with a minimum construction area of new facilities, to increase the efficiency of use of the site, to create large public spaces under the building, to increase the view characteristics of the raised volumes, the original architectural solution has a positive effect on tourism potential of the city; also, such an approach allows us to completely preserve all historically valuable objects on the site and the identity of the environment, emphasizing the industrial past of the site.

1. Planned development of territories
The gray belt of St. Petersburg is my proposed site for the placement of the selected type of building - “Horizontal skyscraper” with the function of a multifunctional complex.
The purpose of the work is: to develop a theoretical basis for the typology of the “Horizontal Skyscraper”, for the further formation of a design model using the example of a large plot located in the industrial zone of St. Petersburg using the repurposing of existing industrial facilities and the addition of new volumes above them, designed on the principle of long-span spatial structures, improvement of depressed environment and increasing the efficiency of use of the territory.
Tram depot No. 3 Blokhin, located in the Petrogradsky district, was chosen as the design site. According to the law of St. Petersburg “On the Rules of Land Use and Development”, the conditions of use ZRZ-2-1 apply to this territory, which implies careful attitude towards the historical buildings existing on this territory. Functional zoning of the territory involves the development of a public and business subzone for the placement of multifunctional and public business development objects and residential buildings located on the territory of historically established areas of the city, including engineering infrastructure facilities.
2. Urban planning solutions
The project is based on the following principles, formulated as a result of the analysis of the territory and the construction of variable spatial models of site development:
1. Preservation of cultural heritage sites and buildings of historical value, their restoration and repurposing as necessary.
2. Demolition of discordant modern construction objects that do not represent historical or functional value, chaotically distributed throughout the site, in order to clear the area for new construction.
3. Conducting further development of the territory and repurposing of existing facilities in accordance with the zoning of the General Plan of St. Petersburg. and PZZ, using the placement of multifunctional-public-business development objects.
4. Construction of voids and gaps between buildings (existing at the moment and arising as a result of the demolition of discordant objects) along Mira Street and Kotovsky Street. Which will form the façade development along these streets that is characteristic of St. Petersburg.
5. Use of functionally developed areas in front of the main, end facades of the tram depots, along Kotovsky Street and Pevchesky Lane, as public space. After repurposing the depot, these areas will be necessary, since they are located in front of the main entrance to these buildings, where there will be a large crowd of people, moreover, the development of these areas is not possible, since it would upset the balance of the landscaping of the site and completely block the view of the tram depots, which are objects of cultural heritage.
6. In view of the current situation on the site, its development will be carried out using large-span volumetric-spatial structures of the “Horizontal Skyscraper” type, since this is the only way to achieve the building density characteristic of the central part of the city on the site, without demolishing cultural heritage sites and buildings public space of squares along Kotovsky Street and Pevchesky Lane.
7. It was decided to locate parking spaces primarily in underground parking so as not to create a car storage area along the perimeter of the site, which would cause traffic jams, disrupt access to the site for pedestrians and spoil the potential and attractiveness of this project. The main place for underground parking is the area under the open public squares and the passage connecting them between the two depots, so underground construction is not expected under historical buildings.
8. For convenience, entry into the underground parking, due to the large dimensions of the parking lot, is made from two sides, from Kotovsky Street and Pevchesky Lane. The main place for guest parking and technical and loading access to buildings is Pevchesky Lane, as it is visually and functionally hidden from the main pedestrian routes.